# Guidelines for making perfect structural design

This civil engineering article focuses on the least standards which should be maintained for the design of various RCC structural elements like the columns, beams, slab and foundation as well as the least safe standards for the reinforcing bars to be applied for making the design of the above mentioned structural elements.

Minimum cross-sectional dimension for a Column should be 9″x 12″ (225 MM x 300 MM). It is the minimum approved size.

It is always recommended to utilize M20 grade concrete for construction as per IS 456:2000. The least steel in a 9″ x 9″ column should be 4 bars of 12 MM with stirrups of 8 MM steel rings at a spacing of 150 MM centre to centre. In a 9″ x 12″ column, more bars (6 bars with 12 mm diameter) should be added to sustain the total efficiently.

Least RCC beam size should not be lower than 9″x 9″ (225MM X 225MM), with an supplementary slab thickness of 125 MM.

Normally, there should be minimum of 4 bars, with 2 bars having 12 MM thickness in the bottom of the beam, and 2 bars having 10 MM at the top of the beam.

A concrete cover of 40 MM should also be provided. It is suggested to utilize M20 grade of concrete (1 part cement : 1.5 parts sand : 3 parts aggregate : 0.5 parts water).

Minimum thickness of RCC slab should be 5″ (125MM) since a slab may comprise of electrical pipes which are implanted into them which could be 0.5″ or more for internal wiring and as a result the depth of slab is decreased at specific places that lead to cracking, weakening and water leakage throughout rains. Therefore, a least thickness of 5″ should be retained.

Minimum size of foundation for a single storey of G+1 building should be 1m x 1m, where safe bearing strength of soil is 30 tonnes per square meter, and the anticipated load on the column does not surpass 30 tonnes.

The depth of footing should be minimum 4′under ground level. It is suggested to get to depths up to had strata.

Minimum Reinforcing bar details:

1. Columns: 4 bars of 12mm steel rods FE 500.

2. Beams: 2 bars of 12 mm in the bottom and 2 bars of 10 mm on the top.

3. Slab

a) One Way Slab: Main Steel 8 MM bars @ 6″ C/C and Distribution Steel of 6 mm bars @ 6″ C/C

b) Two Way Slab: Main Steel 8 MM bars @ 5″ C/C and Distribution Steel of 8 mm bars @ 7″ C/C

4. Foundation: Initially, there should be 6″ of PCC layer. Over it, a tapered or rectangular footing with minimum 12″ thickness should be arranged. Steel mesh of 8 mm bars @ 6″ C/C should be placed. In a 1m X 1m footing, there should be 6 bars of 8 mm on both segments of the steel mesh.