Mechanical properties of building materials
All the building structures are developed with various types of materials. These materials are either known as building materials or materials of construction. The cost of material in a building varies from 30 to 50 percent of entire building cost.
Given below, the detail mechanical properties of materials :-
a. Strength is defined as the strength of material to resist the load.
b. Strength of materials – Capacity to resist an applied stress devoid of failure.
c. Compressive strength – Capacity to resist axially directed pushing forces.
d. Tensile strength – Highest stress at the time of being expanded or dragged prior to necking.
e. Shear strength – The capacity to resist shearing.
f. Elasticity – In a material if exterior load is employed it experiences deformation and on elimination of the load, it gets back to it’s actual shape.
Plasticity: If a material fails to retrieve it’s actual shape while eliminating the exterior load, it is defined as plastic materials.
Ductility: When a material experiences a significant deformation devoid of rupture, it is known as ductile materials.
It experiences a large deformation throughout tensile test. It is considered as the most perfect material for tension member. Steel, copper, wrought iron, aluminum alloys belong to ductile materials.
Elongation is in excess of 15%
a. If a material can’t experience any deformation if some external force functions on it and it collapses with rupture.
b. Brittleness means powerful in compression and poorer in tension.
c. Brittleness is found in C.I, glass, concrete, bricks etc.
d. Elongation remains under 5%
Malleability: Malleability is the capability of a material to distort under pressure (compressive stress). After being malleable, a material is flattened into thin sheets through hammering or rolling. Several metals with high malleability also contain high ductility.
Malleable materials are gold, silver, copper, aluminum, tin, lead steel etc.
Toughness: Toughness means the capability of a material to consume energy prior to rupture is known as toughness.
Toughness is found in mild steel, wrought iron etc.
Hardness: Hardness means the resistance of materials against abrasion, indentation, wear and scratches.
C.I is stronger material.
Stiffness: Stiffness refers to force that is necessary to create unit deformation in a material.
Creep: Creep means inelastic deformation because of sustained load.
Physical properties of materials
Bulk density = ρ = M/V
Specific gravity (G): Mass of solids of specified volume / Mass of equal volume distilled water