Concrete in Construction: Uses, Advantages and Types
Concrete contractors are the most important peoples in most construction works. Cement make from pure wood and glass create some sustainable structures, most commercial and industrial buildings. This article will dive into the basics, importance, and advantages of different cement types used in the construction industry.
Concrete is a main element and a vitally important thing use in several individual and commercial buildings. It solidifies and hardens after water mixing and placement due to a chemical process known as hydration. It binds other building materials together. It is an extensively used material in the construction process and makes by mixing aggregate, cement, small stones, sand, gravel, and water.
The Romans invented hydraulic cement-based concrete. The British enhanced upon it and popularized it in the modern world. The Pantheon in Rome is one of the finest Roman architecture that has survived to this day and has a 42-meter-diameter poured concrete dome.
Uses of Cement in Construction
Cement is probably the most used in materials made by man. Concrete makes:
b) Architectural structures
e) Roads and bridges
g) Parking structures
h) Walls and footings for gates
i) Fences and poles
How Cement Works
The material nurtures together to form a moldable liquid into a hard, rigid solid. Concrete has become a modern life fact in the world today. Six billion concrete tons are used around the world each year. The sand addition, fine aggregates and coarse aggregates of up to a few centimeters makes concrete. The porous material properties depend on its different pre space kinds. Air voids entrapped in the mixing process. The capillary pores are spaces occupied by water from mixing.
Concrete has compressible force related to the overall cement paste porosity and the amount and the aggregates form.
Cement in Today?s Construction
Concrete in the present infrastructure is deteriorating at a rapid pace due to the reinforcing steel corrosion is coming from the inclusion of chloride and other ions from road salts, marine areas and ground soils.
Nowadays, the focus is on the transport concrete aspect includes diffusivity, permeability, and absorption. Complex composite like concrete needs improvement, monitoring, and control.
The amount of water in the mix compares with the amount of cement called the water/cement ratio. The water-cement ratio has to be lower to create strong concrete. It has higher strength and less permeability. The qualities expected of its resistance to freezing and thawing and deicing chemicals, water-tightness, low permeability, wear resistance, and formidable weight.
Admixtures are additions to the mix which use to achieve exact goals. When admixture accelerator adds to concrete, they reduce the concrete and accelerate strength setting time. The reduction amount in setting time varies. Retarding admixtures generally use in hot weather conditions to delay setting time. The Fly ash use to reduce the heat generated by the concrete.
Advantages of Using Concrete in Construction
Concrete most widely uses due to its exclusive profit compared to other materials. Ten concrete significant advantages explain below:
1) Economical Concrete: Cement concrete contrast to engineered cementations materials used for construction, the cement concrete?s production cost is much low.
Plus, it is cheap and widely available around the globe than comparing to steel, polymers, and other construction materials. Major concrete ingredients are cement, water, and aggregates which are available in local markets as a cost effective material.
2) Concrete Hardens at Ambient Temperature: Concrete harden is to increase strength at room temperature or ambient temperature. Cement bonded inorganic material at low temperature. Irrespective of ambient weather conditions, concrete can use in admixtures optimization.
3) Ability to Cast into Shape: Fresh concrete is flow in a liquid state. Various form-works or shuttering configurations to form desired shapes and sizes at the construction site can pour into concrete. Concrete can shed into complex shapes and configurations by the mix adjusting.
4) Energy Efficiency in Production: The energy required for the concrete production is lower than steel. For plain cement concrete, only 450?750 kWh/ton energy need for reinforced concrete is 800?3200 kWh/ton. Structural production demands 8000 kWh/ton or more to make which is approximately 3-10 times the energy consumption.
5) Excellent Water Resistance Characteristics: Though chemicals in water can influence corrosion in concrete and reinforced concrete, concrete can resist water deterioration compared to wood and steel. That is reason concrete is perfect for underwater and submerged applications like for building structures, pipelines, dams, canals, linings, and waterfront structures. Pure water is harmless to concrete and not even to reinforced concrete, chemicals dissolved in water like sulfates, chlorides, and carbon dioxide causes corrosion.
6) High-temperature resistance:
? Concrete can resist higher temperatures than wood and steel. Calcium silicate hydrate is the major binder in concrete, which can resist until 910 degree centigrade.
? Concrete is a bad heat conductor that can store a considerable heat from the environment.
? Concrete can resist heat for 2?6 hours. It gives enough time for rescue operations in fire case.
7) Ability to Consume and Recycle Waste: Many industrial wastes can recycle as an alternate for cement or aggregate that includes fly ash, slag, also known as GGBFS or ground granulated blast-furnaces slag, waste glass, and even ground vehicle tires in concrete. Thus concrete manufacture can significantly reduce environmental impacts due to industrial waste. Using these wastes get better the Concrete properties as well.
8) Application in Reinforced Concrete: Concrete has a similar coefficient of thermal extension to steel.
Steel: 1.2 ? 10-5
Concrete: 1.0?1.5 ? 10-5?.
Concrete imparts protection to steel in corrosive environments due to the CH and other alkalis existence. Moreover, concrete contributes to reinforced concrete members and structures compressive strength.
9) Low or Zero Maintenance Required: Concrete structures do not need coating or painting for regular applications to protect weathering compared to steel or wooden Structures inevitability. The concrete?s maintenance cost is much lower than steel or wood.
10) Multi-Mode Application: Concrete?s ability used in different application methodologies like hand applied, poured, pumped, sprayed, grouted, and also used for advanced applications like shotcreting in tunnels. It gives lot of advantages to the concrete constructors.
In concrete technology, a type names variety use for different concrete types. This classification base on three factors: Material type of used in its making, Nature of stress conditions, And its density.
Concrete types: Plain or Ordinary Concrete, Lightweight Concrete, High-Density Concrete, Reinforced Concrete, Precast Concrete, Pre-stressed Concrete, Air Entrained Concrete, Glass Concrete, Rapid Hardening Concrete, Asphalt Concrete, Lime Concrete, Roller Compacted Concrete, Stamped Concrete, Pumped Concrete, Vacuum Concrete, Permeable Concrete, Shotcrete, Ready-mix Concrete, Self-Consolidated Concrete, Fiber Reinforced Concrete, Fly Ash Concrete, High Strength Concrete, Silica Fume Concrete, Polymer Concrete, Ferro Cement Concrete, Pre-packed Concrete.
Concrete is a necessary part of any construction project. Everybody tell you that concrete forms a crucial part of any building or structure. Just look at the buildings nearby you, the pavements you walk on, and other various structures around. Concrete is everywhere.
If you make the most of its properties, you need to realize which concrete type is best for a particular project.