6 Types of walls used in Building Construction
Wall is a structural element of a building. It divides a space into two spaces (rooms) and provides safety and shelter. Generally, walls are divides into two types outer-walls and inner-walls.
Outer-walls it keeps the house for shelter and inner-walls helps to partition into the required number of rooms. Inner walls which called as Partition walls or Interior Walls and Outer walls which called as Exterior walls.
Types of Walls
1. Load Bearing Wall
Load bearing wall is the whole building structure is rested on walls instead of columns. Basically the loads from slab transfers to the beams, from beams to the columns and then it spread.
Load bearing wall is identify by the structure of beams and slabs but not columns. Whether its exterior or interior walls, the wall which is bearing the whole weight of structure, include self-weight of structural elements which is called Load bearing wall.
2. Non-load Bearing wall or Drop Wall
Partition walls in the building are the best example of Non-load Bearing Wall. It doesn’t support any floor or roof loads. Their thicknesses vary between 100mm to 125mm.It wont carry any weight of the structure.
It is constructed for dividing a space (room) into two spaces (rooms). It can be removed or separate without affecting the building structure.
Non-Load bearing walls which called as Drop wall or Filling wall.
3. Retaining Wall
Retaining wall which is built to maintain the unequal level of the ground. These walls are relatively rigid walls and used to support soil lateral. The wall can be made of RCC or CRS.
4. Shear wall
This wall which is constructed for the lift pit, Water sump or Staircase retains the soil. The wall bears two pressures on it either it may be wind pressure and soil pressure neither wind pressure or water pressure.
Shear wall is carrying the resist of forces. These walls are used to hold the lateral force exerted the structure due to wind, earthquake or other lateral load.
As an example of the water tank. This water tank is constructed on heights which split Wind pressure on it. In this water tank the water which creates water pressure inside the tank and Shear wall is resists these forces without any deflection.
5. Brick masonry wall
Brick Mansonry wall which is constructed helps with bricks. The length of the brick wall is not extended more than 4m. The thickness of the brick wall between 20cm or 10cm.
• The 20cm wall is assumed for outer walls.
• The 10cm wall is assumed for inner walls.
6. Course Rubble Stone masonry wall
Which is constructed by regular size of stones which are well finished & dressed, its called Course Rubble Stone masonry wall. These types of wall are generally looks in bridges, compound walls or boundary walls.
To learn more, watch the following video tutorial.
Video Source: Amazing Civil Engineering Study