Types of Cements Used in Construction
A cement is a material which set, harden the other materials for binding them together. Cement is very popular ingredient used in construction and the most consumed resource of the planet. There are two categories of cement. One is hydraulic and non-hydraulic cement.
a.) Cement is used in mortar to complete the plastering and masonry work.
b.) It is used to make joints of drains and pipes.
c.) It is used for water tightness of structure.
d.) It is used to make foundations, watertight floor, and footpaths.
e.) Cement is used in the manufacturing process of precast pipes, piles, and fencing posts.
f.) It is used to make bridges, culverts, dams and etc.
Types of Cement
1. OPC: OPC stands for Ordinary Portland cement. This cement contains silicates of alumina and calcium carbonate like chalk and marl. This type of cement is used in general construction and masonry works.
2. PPC: PPC stands for Portland Pozzolana Cement. This type of cement basically contains OPC clinker, Gypsum, Pozzolanic materials. This type of cement is used in hydraulic structure, marine structure, dam construction and construction near seashore. This cement is also used in prestressed and post tensioned concrete.
3. Quick Setting Cement: This type of cement contains Clinker and Aluminium Sulphate. This cement sets very quickly. The initial time is 5 minutes and the final time is 30 minutes. This cement is used in underwater construction, rock bolt mining and tunneling. In cold and hot each season is suitable for applying the cement.
4. Low Heat Cement: This type of cement produces very low heat of hydration during setting. This cement contains tricalcium illuminates and declaim silicates. The various elements in Portland cement reduces the heat of hydration. This type of cement is used in large footing, large raft slabs and wind turbine plinths. It is also used to make chemical plants.
5. GGBS Cement: GGBS stands for Ground granulated blast furnace slag. For producing granular product in water or steam by quenching molten iron slag from a blast furnace. After that it is ground into powder.
Mainly this type of cement is used for making flexible concrete structure. It is used with various elements like portland cement and pozzolanic materials. The advantages of this cement are flexibility and extending lifespan of buildings.
The chemical composition of slag is depending upon the composition of raw materials in the production of iron process. GGBS is mainly used in the process of quality improved slag cement named as Portland Blast furnace cement and high slag blast furnace cement. Is used to make ready to mix or site batched flexible concrete.
a.) Reduce the damage risk due to the alkali silica reaction.
b.) This type of cement provides higher resistance to chloride ingress.
c.) Prevent the reinforcement corrosion.
d.) It provides higher resistance to the sulphate and other chemical attack.
6. Rapid Hardening Cement: This type of cement is also known as RHC. It is made by grounded tri calcium silicate in OPC with higher content. Initial setting time of the cement is 30 minutes and the final setting time is 600 minutes. It is used in pavement making process.
7. Sulfate Resisting Cement: This type of cement prevents sulphate attack in concrete. It contains very little amounts of Tricalcium aluminate. This type of cement is used in a very particular way. It gets contact with soil or groundwater which have more than 0.2% or 0.3% g/l sulfate salts.
8. White Cement: This type of cement is made by the raw materials which are free from iron and oxide. It is necessary to have a lot amount of lime and clay I the cement. It is very similar to OPC. This type of cement is very expensive.
9. High Alumina Cement: During the making process of OPC this type of cement is made by mixing calcining bauxite and lime with the clinker. In this type of cement the amount of alumina content must be 32% and the ratio of alumina?s weight to lime must be kept between 0.85 to 1.30. It is used in workshop like refractory and foundries.
In this article we discussed about the definition of cement, purposes and advantages of cement in construction, different types of cement and usage of it in construction.
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