The 10 Types of Concrete Used in Construction
Concrete is made up of a mixture of coarse particles called aggregates. As they combine, the result is a hardening material.
A concrete's strength, durability, heat resistance, and workability depend on the amount of water and cement it contains. With fresh concrete, you can create any shape you like: circles, rectangles, squares, or other shapes. Among other things, it is useful for stairs, columns, doors, beans, and lentils. Depending on its grade, concrete can be used in construction and is determined to be strong or not.
Types of Concrete used in Construction
1. Normal or Plain Concrete
A standard mix design has cement, sand, and aggregates in a ratio of 1:2:4. Pavements and buildings can be constructed from it if the tensile strength is not an important factor. As with normal strength concrete, it presents similar challenges. Vibrations and wind load are not very well handled by it. It is also possible to build dams with ordinary concrete. Concrete of this kind has a high durability rating.
Pavements and buildings with low tensile requirements usually involve this material. Other structures cannot use it since it cannot withstand wind loading or vibrations well.
2. Shotcrete Concrete
Concrete types differ in their application of Shotcrete. By shooting the concrete through a nozzle, it applies to the formwork. Due to the high air pressure needed for this application, the compaction process occurs concurrently with the placing process.
A structure may be damaged by wood, concrete, or steel. Shotcrete can be used to repair it. Formwork becomes impractical or expensive when access to a worksite is difficult or if it's impractical to use a form.
A lightweight aggregate like glass fiber or sharp sand is in this concrete instead of cement. Most often, floors, vaults, and domes are constructed using concrete. The ease of cleaning and the fact that Limecrete is renewable makes it an effective environmental solution. Radiant floor heating is also suitable for its use.
4. Precast Concrete
These concrete blocks are manufactured and cast according to precise specifications by a factory. Concrete precast units are transported and erected on site. While driving along highways, you'll often see these units as they transport to construction sites.
There are several uses for precast concrete, including concrete blocks, precast walls, staircase units, and poles. Precast concrete's speedy assembly is an advantage. They are of very high quality because they manufacture in a factory.
5. Pre-stressed Concrete
Pre-stressed concrete is often used in large concrete projects. The technique used to create pre-stressed concrete is unique. In addition to bars or tendons, it also has reinforcement. Concrete is non-applicable until the tendons or bars are stiff. They are placed at the ends of each structural unit after the concrete has mixed and placed. This unit is put into compression once the concrete has dried.
A tensile force applies to the lower section of the unit during this process. A heavy piece of equipment is required, however, as is skilled labor. Pre-tensioned units are created on-site and then erected. The material used for building bridges, large structures, and long-span roofs.
6. Reinforced Concrete
Modern construction and industry make extensive use of this form of concrete. Before concrete sets, wires, steel bars, or cables are embedded in the mixture to increase its strength. They are commonly referred to as rebar. Concrete reinforced with fibers.
Concreting helps resist compressive forces while reinforcing resists tensile forces. As a result, they produce a strong bond that resists a wide range of force applications. Essentially, they become one structural element. The concrete surface of a building, a road, or a bridge is made of concrete. Often, construction sites surround concrete and rebar.
7. Lightweight Concrete
The term lightweight concrete refers to any concrete with a density below 1920 kg/m3. The lightweight aggregates used in lightweight concrete give the concrete its lightweight. Aggregate is a component of concrete that adds density.
Some examples of light aggregates include stones like scoria or pumice, artificial stones like clay, and expanded shale or processed stones like vermiculite. Thermal conductivity is its most important property. For example, bridge decks and building blocks can be made from lightweight concrete. In addition, steel structures can be protected by it.
8. High ?Density Concrete
Atomic power plants require the use of a very specific type of concrete called high-density concrete. Heavy aggregates are used in the creation of high-density concrete to make it radiation-resistant. The most common type of rock used is crushed rock. It is most often used to crush barytes, which are white or colorless crushed rock containing barium sulfate.
9. Air-Entrained Concrete
The volume of concrete is equal to over a billion microscopic air cells. The small air pockets in concrete relieve the pressure inside. These tiny chambers can expand when water freezes. In addition to alcohols, resins, and fatty acids, foaming agents are often added to concrete during mixing to entrap air. Considering the concrete must mix on the construction site, it must happen under engineering supervision. Air entrains in almost all concrete used in freezing environments or freeze-thaw cycles.
To learn more, watch the following video tutorial.
Video Source: civilogy
10. Pumped Concrete
Pump concrete is one of the most common cement mixtures used in high-rise flooring.
Packed concrete works very well because it's easy to work to take up to the top floor via a pipe. The concrete will be discharged through this pipe, either flexible or rigid. Often, it is the only way that concrete can be placed at certain locations since it is such an efficient, reliable and economical method of applying concrete. Pumped concrete makes with very fine aggregates. Concrete flows from the pipe more freely when the aggregate in the mix is finer.